Population: 30,135,875 (est.)
- The Peruvian nuevo sol is the official currency of Peru.
- The majority of the people in Peru are Roman Catholics.
- Although the Constitution states that there is freedom of religion, the law mandates that all schools, public and private, impart religious education as part of the curriculum throughout the education process (primary and secondary).
- Peru follows a ‘Constitutional Republic’ system.
- Peru was also a part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America.
- Lake Titicaca, which Peru shares with Bolivia, is the largest lake in South America, along with being the highest navigable lake in the world.
- Machu Picchu, the Lost City of the Incas, is located in the Andes Mountains of Peru.
- Peru was the last Spanish colony in South America to gain independence.
- Mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing and food processing form the major industries in Peru.
- Peru is the 19th largest country in the world.
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.
Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 28.7 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.