Population: 113,910,608 (est.)
Language(s): Spanish and indigenous languages
Capital: Mexico City
National Dish: Mole Poblano (amongst others)
- The Mexican peso is the official currency of Mexico.
- Mexico has no official religion.
- The Catholic Church is the dominant religion in Mexico, with about 82.7% of the population as of 2010.
- Mexico is second only to Brazil in the number of Catholic citizens.
- The official name of Mexico is Estados Únidos Mexicanos (United Mexican States).
- Mexico is thought to have the highest rate of kidnapping in the world (2011).
- There are over 200,000 different species of plants and animals in Mexico- which is why it is classified as a mega-diverse country.
- Violent crimes are a serious problem in Mexico due to drug-trafficking and gang violence. The homicide rate is about 11 in 100,000 people.
- Mexico introduced chocolate, corn, and chilies to the world.
- The first printing press in North America was used in Mexico City in 1539.
- Tequila is the national drink.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States of America; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the thirteenth largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 113 million, it is the world’s eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, the capital city.
In pre-Columbian Mexico many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, Spain conquered and colonized the territory from its base in México-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This territory would eventually become Mexico following recognition of the colony’s independence in 1821. The post-independence period was characterized by economic instability, the Mexican-American War and territorial cession to the United States, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country’s current political system. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time that an opposition party won the presidency from the Institutional Revolutionary Party. Since 2006 the country has been in the midst of a drug war which has caused 60,000 deaths.
Mexico has one of the world’s largest economies, and is considered both a regional power and middle power. In addition, Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD (since 1994), and considered an upper-middle income country by the World Bank. Mexico is considered a newly industrialized country and an emerging power. It has the thirteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest GDP by purchasing power parity. The economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States of America. Mexico ranks sixth in the world and first in the Americas by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites with 31,and in 2007 was the tenth most visited country in the world with 21.4 million international arrivals per year.