Population: 53,013,000 (est.)
National Dish: Fish and Chips, Sunday Roast, Chicken tikka masala.
- The GBP£ is the official currency of England.
- Christianity is the most widely practiced and declared religion in England. The Anglican Church of England is the established church of England holding a special constitutional position for the United Kingdom.
- Around 60% of the country are Christians, though many do not follow the religion. Non-religious people are the second largest group with around 25%, and Islam is next with around 5% of the population being adherents.
- England is non-devolved constituent country within a constitutional monarch.
- The Economy of England is the largest economy of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
- England is a highly industrialised country. It is an important producer of textiles and chemical products. Although automobiles, locomotives, and aircraft are among England’s other important industrial products, a significant proportion of the country’s income comes from the City of London.
- London, England’s capital, used to be the largest and most influential city in the world. With a population of around 12 million, it remains the largest city in Europe.
- English people consume more tea per capita than anybody else in the world (2.5 times more than the Japanese and 22 times more than the Americans or the French).
- French was the official language of England for about 300 years, from 1066 till 1362.
- The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world’s first industrialised nation.
- Established in 1902, Ealing Studios in West London are the oldest continuously working film studios in the world.
- England has warmer maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the year than the other areas of the UK, though Wales has milder minima from November to February, and Northern Ireland has warmer maxima from December to February.
England is the most populous country in the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, while the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country’s parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world’s first industrialised nation. England’s Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science.
England’s terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds). The former capital of England was Winchester until replaced by London in 1066. Today London is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. England’s population is about 53 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely concentrated in London, the South East and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century. Meadowlands and pastures are found beyond the major cities.
The Kingdom of England—which after 1284 included Wales—was a sovereign state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, the Irish Free State was established as a separate dominion, but the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 reincorporated into the kingdom six Irish counties to officially create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.