Population: 29,752 (est.)
Language(s): English, Spanish, Llanito
- The UK £ and the Gibraltar pound are the main currencies in Gibraltar.
- The main religion of Gibraltar is Christianity with small Muslim and Hindu communities.
- Gibraltar’s economy is largely based today on tourism, online gaming, financial services, and shipping.
- The main ethnic groups in Gibraltar are Gibraltarian (of mixed Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese and Andalusian descent), other British, Moroccan and Indian.
- Under the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, Spain ceded Gibraltar to Great Britain, in perpetuity. Spain and France laid siege to Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence (1775-1783), with the hope of getting it back.
- Spain still asserts a claim to the territory of Gibraltar.
- Gibraltar and the Moroccan mountain of Jbel Musa are known as ‘The Pillars of Hercules’. This is because it is believed that Hercules used them as his handgrips, when he decided to pull Africa and Spain apart.
- The evidence of human habitation in Gibraltar has been traced to as far back as Neanderthal man.
- In Gibraltar, the British monarch is Chief of State. He/she appoints a Governor and Commander-in-Chief, as local representatives.
- Gibraltar practices self-governance in all the areas, except defence and foreign policy.
- In 1967 and 2002, the people of Gibraltar voted to remain a British dependency.
Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. It has an area of 6.8 square kilometres (2.6 sq mi) and a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region. At its foot is the densely populated city area, home to almost 30,000 Gibraltarians and other nationalities.
An Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar from Spain in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. The territory was subsequently ceded to Britain “in perpetuity” under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was an important base for the Royal Navy; today its economy is based largely on tourism, online gaming, financial services, and shipping.
The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a major point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations as Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and again in 2002. Under the Gibraltar constitution of 2006, Gibraltar governs its own affairs, though some powers, such as defence and foreign relations, remain the responsibility of the UK Government.