Population: 6,086,495 (est.)
Language(s): Tigrinya, Arabic, English
- The Eritrean nakfa is the official currency Eritrea.
- Eritrea has two dominant religions, Christianity and Islam. Various approximations have estimated that 60% are Christians (mostly followers of Orthodox Christianity) and 40% of the population is Sunni Muslim.
- Eritrea has an extensive amount of resources such as copper, gold, granite, marble, and potash.
- Eritrea’s GDP grew by 8.7 percent making it one of the fastest growing economies in the world.
- Worker remittances from abroad are estimated to account for 32 percent of gross domestic product.
- Eritrea has a hot, dry desert strip along the Red Sea coast and is cooler and wetter in the central highlands. Rainfall is heaviest during June–September except in the coastal desert.
- At the national level, there is no official language of Eritrea.
- Eritrea has a ‘Transitional government’.
- Eritrea’s constitution, adopted in 1997, made the country a presidential republic, with a unicameral parliamentary democracy.
Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea is the Italian form of the Greek name ???????? (Erythraí??), meaning “red [land]”. With its capital at Asmara, it is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea, directly across from Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands.
Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups. It has a population of around six million inhabitants. Most residents speak Afro-Asiatic languages, either of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinya make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity and Islam.
The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, rose somewhere around the first or second centuries and adopted Christianity shortly after its formation. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri Kingdom, with part being part of the Hamasien Republic. The creation of modern day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent Kingdoms and various vassal states of the Ethiopian empire and the Ottoman Empire, eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. In 1947 Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Subsequent annexation by Ethiopia led to the Eritrean War of Independence, ending with Eritrean independence in 1991.
Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations and IGAD, and is an observer in the Arab League.